Music Financing in the Context of Record Label: Financial Methods and Funding Options
The music industry has undergone significant changes in recent years, particularly with the rise of digital platforms and streaming services. As a result, artists and record labels have had to adapt their financial strategies and explore new funding options to support their creative endeavors. This article aims to examine the various methods and funding options available for music financing within the context of record labels.
To illustrate this topic, let us consider the case study of an independent artist named Sarah who aspires to release her debut album under a record label. Like many aspiring musicians, Sarah faces numerous challenges when it comes to financing her project. Traditional avenues such as personal savings or loans from family members may not be sufficient or readily available, especially considering the high costs associated with production, marketing, distribution, and promotion in today’s competitive music landscape.
Therefore, it becomes essential for Sarah to understand alternative financial methods and funding options that can help bring her musical vision to life. By examining these possibilities within the framework of record labels specifically, this article seeks to provide insight into how artists like Sarah can navigate the complex world of music financing while striking a balance between artistic integrity and commercial viability.
Licensing Deals: How artists can leverage their music for revenue through licensing agreements
In today’s music industry, artists have various avenues to generate income from their creative works. One such method is through Licensing Deals, wherein artists grant permission to third parties to use their music in exchange for financial compensation. This arrangement allows artists to tap into new revenue streams and expand the reach of their music beyond traditional channels. To better understand how licensing deals work and their potential benefits, let us delve into a real-life example.
Consider the case of an emerging indie artist who writes and produces electronic dance music (EDM). Through diligent networking and marketing efforts, this artist gains recognition within the EDM community and attracts the attention of several event organizers seeking fresh tracks for their upcoming festivals. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, the artist enters into licensing agreements with these organizers, granting them usage rights for specific songs during designated performances. As a result, not only does the artist receive upfront payments but also continues to earn royalties from subsequent plays of those licensed songs at each event.
To fully grasp the advantages that licensing deals offer artists like our hypothetical EDM producer, we can explore some key points:
- Expanded exposure: Licensing agreements provide opportunities for artists to showcase their work across different platforms such as commercials, movies, TV shows, or video games. By doing so, they increase brand visibility and potentially attract new fans.
- Diversified revenue streams: Apart from traditional album sales or streaming revenues, licensing deals introduce alternative sources of income which can be significant for independent artists trying to make a living solely from their craft.
- Creative autonomy: With licensing agreements often negotiated directly between artists or their representatives and licensees, musicians retain control over how their music is used while still benefiting financially.
- Building relationships: Engaging in licensing partnerships enables artists to forge connections with professionals in other industries such as advertising or film production. These networks may open doors to future collaborations or additional opportunities.
To summarize, licensing deals present artists with the chance to generate revenue and gain prominence by granting others permission to use their music. Through expanded exposure, diversified income streams, creative autonomy, and relationship-building opportunities, artists can leverage these agreements to propel their careers forward. In light of this understanding, let us now explore the option of royalty advances as another financial method for musicians in our subsequent section.
*[EDM]: Electronic Dance Music
|Advantages of Licensing Deals|
|Diversified revenue streams|
Transitioning into the next section about “Royalty Advances: Exploring the option of upfront payments based on future royalty earnings,” we will further delve into alternative financing options available to artists within record label contexts.
Royalty Advances: Exploring the option of upfront payments based on future royalty earnings
Transitioning from the previous section on licensing deals, let us now explore another financing option available to artists in the context of record labels: royalty advances. To illustrate this further, we will consider a hypothetical scenario involving an aspiring musician named Alex who has recently signed with a prominent record label.
Royalty advances offer artists upfront payments based on their projected future earnings from royalties. In Alex’s case, after signing with the record label, they negotiate a deal where they receive an advance payment against their expected income generated through album sales and streaming platforms. This allows Alex to access funds immediately for various purposes such as recording expenses or touring costs without having to wait for royalty payments to accrue over time.
There are several factors that both artists like Alex and record labels need to consider when opting for royalty advances:
- Advance Amount: The initial sum provided by the record label needs careful consideration. It should strike a balance between meeting the artist’s immediate financial needs while also ensuring that it does not overly burden them with debt.
- Royalty Percentage: The percentage of future royalties that will be withheld by the record label until the advanced amount is recouped must be carefully negotiated. This ensures fairness and transparency in terms of how much of their earnings an artist will eventually receive.
- Recoupment Period: The duration within which the advanced amount needs to be repaid is crucial. Record labels may set specific timelines for recoupment, often tied to album cycles or other milestones in an artist’s career.
- Financial Responsibility: Both parties must clearly define each party’s financial responsibilities during the recoupment period. For example, determining whether marketing and promotion costs will be deducted from royalties before or after repayment can significantly impact an artist’s overall revenue.
To visually convey these considerations, here is a table highlighting key aspects of royalty advances:
|Advance Amount||Initial sum provided by the record label for immediate financial needs|
|Royalty Percentage||Percentage of future royalties withheld until recoupment|
|Recoupment Period||Duration within which the advanced amount must be repaid|
|Financial Responsibility||Clear definition of respective financial responsibilities|
By carefully evaluating these aspects and negotiating favorable terms, artists like Alex can make informed decisions regarding Royalty Advances. This financing option provides them with a valuable opportunity to access upfront capital while allowing record labels to share in their success.
Transitioning into the subsequent section on sponsorships, let us now explore how brands can partner with musicians for mutual benefit and financial support.
Sponsorships: How brands can partner with musicians for mutual benefit and financial support
Building on the exploration of royalty advances, another avenue that artists can pursue to secure financial backing in the music industry is through sponsorships. By partnering with brands, musicians have the opportunity to not only receive financial support but also mutually benefit by leveraging each other’s platforms.
One example of a successful brand-musician partnership is the collaboration between renowned artist Taylor Swift and global cosmetics company CoverGirl. In this case, CoverGirl sponsored Swift’s concert tour, providing financial resources for production costs while gaining exposure to Swift’s massive fan base. This symbiotic relationship allowed both parties to achieve their respective goals – Swift received much-needed funding for her tour, and CoverGirl was able to reach a younger demographic through association with one of today’s biggest pop stars.
To further understand how partnerships like these work, let us explore some key benefits of sponsorships in the music industry:
- Increased visibility: Partnering with well-established brands allows musicians to tap into their existing customer base and gain exposure to new audiences.
- Financial support: Brands often provide monetary assistance for various aspects such as album production, marketing campaigns, or even tour expenses.
- Access to resources: Sponsorship deals may grant artists access to specialized equipment, studios, or experts in areas such as branding or social media management.
- Creative collaborations: Working alongside brands opens up opportunities for unique creative projects where musicians can experiment with different mediums or expand their artistic vision.
Table showcasing notable brand-musician partnerships:
|Nike||Kanye West||Collaborated on footwear design and released limited edition sneakers|
|Coca-Cola||Beyoncé||Joint campaign promoting empowerment and diversity|
|H&M||The Weeknd||Collaborative fashion line launched in conjunction with album release|
|Apple||Drake||Exclusive streaming rights and promotional tie-ins for new music releases|
By partnering with brands, musicians can secure financial support while expanding their reach. Through sponsorships, artists gain access to increased visibility, resources, and opportunities for creative collaborations. These mutually beneficial relationships exemplify the potential of brand-musician partnerships in today’s music industry.
This exploration of Sponsorships highlights one way artists can fund their projects. However, there is another increasingly popular method that harnesses the power of fans – crowdfunding.
Crowdfunding: Harnessing the power of fans to fund music projects and albums
Continuing our exploration of music financing options, we now turn our attention to sponsorships. In this section, we will examine how brands can collaborate with musicians to achieve mutual benefits and provide much-needed financial support.
To illustrate the effectiveness of sponsorships in the music industry, let’s consider a hypothetical case study. Imagine a rising indie band called “Harmony Junction” seeking funding for their upcoming album release. They approach a well-established clothing brand known for its edgy style and youthful appeal. The two entities decide to join forces through a sponsorship agreement that encompasses various promotional activities, such as featuring Harmony Junction’s logo on the brand’s merchandise and incorporating their music in advertisements.
When it comes to sponsorships between brands and musicians, several advantages emerge:
- Increased exposure: By partnering with a popular brand, musicians gain access to an established customer base while simultaneously exposing the brand to new audiences within the music community.
- Financial backing: Brands often provide monetary support or resources needed for producing high-quality recordings, organizing tours, or hosting exclusive events.
- Cross-promotion opportunities: Musicians can leverage the brand’s marketing channels (e.g., social media platforms) to reach a wider audience while also promoting products or services in alignment with their artistic vision.
- Authenticity and credibility: Collaborating with reputable brands can enhance a musician’s reputation by associating them with quality products or values cherished by their target demographic.
Let us delve deeper into these benefits using the following table:
|Increased exposure||Accessing existing customer bases while expanding reach|
|Financial backing||Support provided through funds or necessary resources|
|Cross-promotion opportunities||Utilizing brand marketing channels for wider visibility|
|Authenticity and credibility||Enhancing reputation through association with reputable brands|
Through sponsorships, musicians can not only secure financial support but also leverage the brand’s influence to expand their reach and enhance their credibility. This mutually beneficial collaboration provides a concrete solution for artists seeking monetary backing while simultaneously promoting products or services relevant to their audience.
Transitioning into our next section, we will now explore another avenue of music financing: investment funds. These specialized funds focused on the music industry offer an alternative route for securing financial support without relying solely on traditional methods such as record labels or personal savings.
Investment Funds: Accessing financial support from specialized funds focused on the music industry
Transition from previous section:
Building on the concept of fan engagement, another method that has gained popularity in recent years is crowdfunding. By leveraging the power of their loyal fan base, artists and musicians have been able to fund their music projects and albums through this unique approach. Now, let’s explore how investment funds can also provide valuable financial support to artists within the music industry.
Investment Funds: Accessing Financial Support from Specialized Funds Focused on the Music Industry
To better understand the potential benefits of investment funds for musicians, consider a hypothetical scenario where an up-and-coming indie band named “Harmonium” wants to record and release their debut album. However, they lack sufficient capital to cover the costs associated with studio time, production expenses, and marketing efforts. In such cases, investment funds dedicated specifically to supporting emerging artists could be a viable option for Harmonium.
The advantages of accessing funding through specialized music industry investment funds include:
- Expertise: Investment funds often consist of professionals who possess extensive knowledge and experience within the music industry. This expertise enables them to identify promising talent while offering guidance on various aspects of artist development.
- Networking Opportunities: Collaborating with an investment fund not only provides financial assistance but also opens doors to networking opportunities with other individuals and organizations within the music industry.
- Reduced Risk: With proper due diligence and evaluation processes in place, investment funds aim to minimize risk by selecting projects with higher chances of success. This can alleviate some concerns for both artists seeking funding and potential investors involved.
- Long-Term Partnerships: Unlike one-time crowdfunding campaigns or loans that typically require repayment over a specific period, engaging with an investment fund may lead to long-term partnerships. These relationships can provide ongoing support throughout an artist’s career trajectory.
|Investment Funds||Access to industry expertise||Limited artistic control|
|Crowdfunding||Engage fans and build a community||Reliance on online presence|
|Merchandise Sales||Additional revenue stream||Requires brand development|
In considering funding options, musicians should weigh the pros and cons associated with each approach. While crowdfunding harnesses fan support and investment funds provide financial stability, merchandise sales offer an additional revenue stream for artists.
By diversifying their income sources through artist-branded merchandise such as t-shirts, posters, or exclusive limited editions, musicians can generate revenue while also promoting their brand. In the following section, we will delve deeper into how Merchandise Sales contribute to the overall music financing landscape.
Now let’s explore how artists can tap into another avenue of generating revenue by selling artist-branded merchandise.
Merchandise Sales: Generating revenue through the sale of artist-branded merchandise
Transitioning from the previous section on investment funds, another viable option for music financing in the context of record labels is generating revenue through merchandise sales. Let us consider an example to illustrate this concept: Imagine a popular indie band called “The Harmonizers” who have gained a significant fan following over the years. The band decides to leverage their popularity by creating and selling artist-branded merchandise such as t-shirts, hats, and posters.
Merchandise sales present a lucrative opportunity for record labels to generate additional income beyond traditional music sales. By capitalizing on the strong connection fans feel with their favorite artists, merchandising allows labels to tap into their audience’s desire to express support and affiliation. This strategy not only generates direct revenue but also serves as a form of marketing, as fans become walking advertisements for the brand.
To further explore the potential benefits of merchandise sales within the music industry, consider the following bullet points:
- Merchandise provides a tangible means for fans to support their favorite artists while expressing their identity.
- Branded items can become collector’s items or memorabilia that hold sentimental value and help foster personal connections between fans and artists.
- Successful merchandise campaigns can enhance brand recognition and expand an artist’s reach beyond just music consumers.
- Direct-to-consumer merchandising enables greater control over inventory management and profit margins compared to third-party retailers.
Let us now delve into a table showcasing different types of artist-branded merchandise along with examples:
|Type of Merchandise||Examples|
|Apparel||T-shirts, hoodies, caps|
|Accessories||Pins, keychains, phone cases|
|Home Goods||Posters, mugs, blankets|
|Collectibles||Vinyl records, limited edition sets|
As demonstrated above, offering diverse options when it comes to branded merchandise ensures there is something for every fan. Moreover, successful collaborations with creative designers or artists can elevate merchandise offerings, making them even more appealing and desirable.
In conclusion, record labels have recognized the potential of merchandising as an essential revenue stream within the music industry. By creating artist-branded merchandise, labels not only generate direct income but also cultivate a sense of loyalty and connection among fans. This strategy allows for greater control over sales channels and offers opportunities to expand brand recognition beyond traditional music avenues. As we transition into the next section on touring income, let us explore the financial opportunities that come with live performances and tours.
Touring Income: Exploring the financial opportunities that come with live performances and tours
Merchandise sales have long been a popular avenue for generating revenue in the music industry. However, another significant source of income for record labels and artists comes from live performances and tours. By taking their music on the road, artists not only connect with fans but also unlock various financial opportunities.
To illustrate the potential financial benefits of touring, let us consider an example: Imagine a successful indie rock band embarking on a cross-country tour to promote their latest album. They secure bookings at several well-known venues, attracting large crowds of devoted fans. Through ticket sales alone, they generate substantial income that can be reinvested into future projects or used to cover production costs. Additionally, merchandise sales during these shows contribute significantly to their overall earnings.
When it comes to touring income, there are various factors that influence its profitability:
- Ticket prices: Setting reasonable ticket prices is crucial to ensure attendance while still maximizing revenue.
- Venue selection: Choosing appropriate venues based on capacity and location plays a vital role in optimizing ticket sales.
- Expenses management: Careful expense management helps minimize costs associated with transportation, accommodation, equipment rental, and crew salaries.
- Sponsorship and endorsements: Forming partnerships with relevant sponsors can provide additional funding and promotional support.
To further highlight the financial aspects of touring income, let’s examine the following table which showcases hypothetical earnings from different tour-related activities:
As demonstrated in this example scenario, touring offers multiple avenues for musicians to enhance their financial standing beyond just ticket sales. The combination of merchandise sales and sponsorships contributes significantly to an artist’s overall earnings during a tour.
In our subsequent section about “Streaming Revenue: Understanding the revenue streams from platforms like Spotify and Apple Music,” we will explore yet another essential aspect of music financing that has gained prominence in recent years. By comprehending the intricacies of streaming revenue, artists and record labels can harness the full potential of online platforms to further support their financial goals.
Streaming Revenue: Understanding the revenue streams from platforms like Spotify and Apple Music
Having examined the various financial opportunities associated with live performances and tours, we now shift our focus to another significant source of income for musicians and record labels – streaming revenue. As technology continues to reshape the music industry landscape, understanding how artists can capitalize on streaming services such as Spotify and Apple Music is crucial for financial success.
Streaming Revenue Opportunities:
One compelling example illustrating the potential benefits of streaming revenue involves a rising indie artist named Sarah Johnson. With her debut album released on major streaming platforms, she was able to reach a global audience without relying solely on traditional marketing methods or physical sales. Through consistent promotion on social media channels and playlist placements curated by influential tastemakers, Sarah’s songs gained traction among listeners globally. This resulted in substantial monthly streams, which translated into steady income through royalties generated from these digital platforms.
To further emphasize the impact of streaming revenue within the music industry today, consider the following bullet points:
- The exponential growth of online music consumption has opened up new avenues for artists to generate income.
- Streaming services offer accessible platforms where fans can discover and engage with an extensive repertoire of music.
- Artists have greater control over their content distribution compared to earlier eras dominated by physical formats.
- Collaborative playlists created by curators play a pivotal role in boosting visibility for emerging talents.
Table – Comparison between Traditional Sales and Streaming Revenue:
|Aspect||Traditional Sales||Streaming Revenue|
|Distribution||Physical copies sold||Digital audio files streamed|
|Reach||Limited availability||Global accessibility|
|Royalty rates||Higher per-unit income||Lower, but accumulative|
|Cost of production||Manufacturing costs||Digital distribution fees|
It is evident from the table above that streaming revenue offers distinct advantages in terms of reach and accessibility. While traditional sales may yield higher per-unit income, the cumulative nature of streaming royalties can result in a steady stream of revenue over time.
With an understanding of how artists can generate income through streaming services, our exploration now turns to another essential financial opportunity for musicians – sync licensing. By examining the use of music in advertisements, TV shows, and movies for financial gain, we can uncover additional ways artists can monetize their creative works.
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Sync Licensing: Exploring the use of music in advertisements, TV shows, and movies for financial gain
Transitioning from our previous discussion on streaming revenue, let’s now delve into another important aspect of music financing: sync licensing. Sync licensing refers to the process of using music in advertisements, TV shows, and movies for financial gain. This practice has become increasingly significant in the digital age as artists seek additional sources of income beyond traditional album sales and live performances.
To illustrate the impact of sync licensing, consider a hypothetical scenario where an independent artist named Alex releases a captivating song that gains popularity through online platforms. Recognizing its potential, a television show producer decides to feature this track during an emotionally charged scene in their series finale. As a result, Alex’s song becomes synonymous with that pivotal moment in the show, garnering widespread acclaim and generating substantial revenue through sync licensing agreements with various networks.
When examining the financial methods and funding options associated with sync licensing within the context of record labels, several key considerations come to light:
- Demand: The demand for quality music in advertising campaigns or TV shows remains high due to its ability to enhance emotional connections with audiences.
- Licensing Fees: Record labels negotiate sync licenses directly with advertisers or production companies who pay upfront fees for the rights to use specific songs.
- Royalties: In addition to one-time payments, artists can earn ongoing royalties based on factors such as airtime frequency or viewer engagement.
- Exposure: Sync licensing provides valuable exposure for artists by introducing their music to wider audiences and potentially leading to increased fanbase growth.
In summary, sync licensing offers tremendous financial opportunities for artists looking to diversify their income streams. By leveraging partnerships with advertisers and producers, musicians can not only generate immediate revenue but also benefit from enhanced exposure and long-term royalty earnings. With this understanding of sync licensing’s role in music financing within the record label context, we can now explore another crucial aspect: publishing rights.
Publishing Rights: Leveraging songwriting royalties and licensing for additional income
Sync Licensing has proven to be a lucrative avenue for musicians and record labels seeking additional financial gain. By allowing their music to be used in advertisements, TV shows, and movies, artists have the opportunity to reach wider audiences while generating revenue through licensing fees. For instance, imagine a rising indie band whose song is featured in a popular television series. This exposure not only boosts their visibility but also provides them with a substantial income stream.
To successfully navigate the world of sync licensing, it is important for artists and record labels to understand the various methods and funding options available to them. Here are some key considerations:
Licensing Agreements: When entering into licensing agreements with production companies or advertising agencies, it is crucial to negotiate fair terms that protect the rights of both parties involved. These agreements typically outline how the music will be used, the duration of usage, payment details, and any restrictions on exclusivity.
Music Libraries: Many music libraries act as intermediaries between content creators and artists looking for sync opportunities. Artists can submit their tracks to these platforms where they are then made available for potential use by filmmakers, advertisers, and other media professionals. In return, artists receive royalties when their songs are licensed.
Custom Composition: In some cases, production companies may require original compositions tailored specifically for their projects. This offers an excellent opportunity for composers and musicians to showcase their skills while earning a significant fee for creating unique pieces of music.
Royalty-Free Options: Another option gaining popularity is royalty-free music libraries. Musicians create instrumental tracks that can be licensed at a one-time flat fee without ongoing royalties being paid out later on.
These financing methods provide just a glimpse into the diverse range of possibilities within sync licensing. It’s essential for artists and record labels to explore these avenues strategically based on their specific goals and circumstances.
|Increased exposure||Loss of creative control||Excitement|
|Additional income||Potential exclusivity||Satisfaction|
|Networking opportunities||Limited revenue streams||Hope|
|Collaboration potential||Time-consuming process||Frustration|
Understanding the financial methods and funding options within sync licensing is vital for artists and record labels looking to maximize their earnings. By exploring these avenues strategically, musicians can not only generate additional income but also expand their fan base and gain valuable industry connections.
Transitioning into the subsequent section about “Neighboring Rights: Understanding the royalties earned from public performances of recorded music,” it’s important to delve further into different aspects of music financing in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic.
Neighboring Rights: Understanding the royalties earned from public performances of recorded music
Neighboring Rights, also known as neighboring rights royalties or performance rights, refer to the compensation artists receive when their recorded music is publicly performed. This can include radio airplay, live performances, streaming services, television broadcasts, and other public uses. The revenue generated through neighboring rights plays a significant role in supporting musicians financially.
To better understand the financial benefits associated with neighboring rights, let us consider an example. Imagine an independent artist who has released a popular album that receives widespread airplay on various radio stations worldwide. As a result of this exposure, the artist starts earning significant neighboring rights royalties from these radio plays. These earnings serve as an important source of income and contribute to sustaining their career.
When examining the financial methods and funding options related to neighboring rights, it is essential to highlight some key points:
- Licensing Agreements: Artists often enter into licensing agreements with collective management organizations (CMOs) or performing rights societies (PRSs). These organizations help collect and distribute neighboring rights royalties on behalf of artists.
- International Collection Societies: For global reach, many artists rely on international collection societies that have established networks across multiple countries. These societies work together to ensure fair compensation for artists based on where their music is being played.
- Royalty Distribution Models: Various factors influence how neighboring rights royalties are distributed among rightsholders. These factors may include airplay frequency, popularity charts, specific territories’ regulations, and distribution policies set by CMOs or PRSs.
- Additional Revenue Streams: In addition to broadcasted recordings, other forms of public performances such as live concerts and digital streaming platforms generate neighboring rights revenues. Diversifying income streams can significantly impact an artist’s overall financial stability.
To further illustrate the significance of neighboring rights, consider the following table:
|Artist||Country||Radio Plays (per month)||Neighboring Rights Royalties|
The table above demonstrates how artists from different countries earn royalties based on radio plays. These figures highlight the potential financial benefits that neighboring rights can bring to artists worldwide.
As we delve deeper into understanding music financing within the context of record labels, it is crucial to explore another important aspect: Public Performance Royalties. This section will shed light on the various ways in which musicians benefit financially when their music is played in public spaces such as restaurants, bars, and retail stores.
Public Performance Royalties: Exploring the financial benefits of music played in public spaces
Now let’s delve into the financial benefits that arise from the public performance of recorded music. To illustrate this, imagine a popular artist whose songs are frequently played in various public spaces such as restaurants, bars, and shopping malls. Each time one of their songs is performed publicly, it generates income known as public performance royalties.
Public performance royalties play a significant role in an artist’s revenue stream. These royalties are collected by performing rights organizations (PROs) on behalf of artists and copyright holders. PROs ensure that songwriters and publishers receive fair compensation for their work when their compositions are performed publicly.
To better understand the financial impact of these royalties, consider the following bullet points:
- Public performance royalties can be a substantial source of income for artists, especially those with highly streamed or widely recognized songs.
- The amount received varies depending on factors such as the popularity of the song, number of performances, and the size and location of venues where it is played.
- Artists often rely on PROs to track and collect these royalties since monitoring every public performance individually would be impractical.
- Royalty rates may differ across countries due to variations in legislation regarding neighboring rights.
To provide further insight into this topic, here is an illustrative table showcasing hypothetical examples of potential earnings based on different levels of exposure:
|Song Exposure||Number of Performances per Year||Average Earnings per Performance|
As evident from this table, increased song exposure coupled with higher numbers of performances can significantly enhance an artist’s earnings through public performance royalties. This highlights how crucial it is for artists to have their music played publicly to maximize their financial returns.
In summary, public performance royalties contribute substantially to an artist’s overall income. These royalties are collected by PROs and distributed to songwriters and publishers based on their compositions’ performances in public spaces. The potential earnings from these royalties depend on factors such as song popularity, number of performances, and venue size. By taking advantage of neighboring rights and ensuring their music is widely played, artists have the opportunity to generate significant revenue through public performance royalties.