Nighttime Smartphone Use and Changes in Mental Health and Wellbeing in Young Adults: A Longitudinal Study Based on High-Resolution Tracking Data
Rehm, J. & Shield, KD Global burden of disease and impact of mental and addictive disorders. Fluent. Representative in Psychiatry 21(2), 10 (2019).
McManus, S. & Gunnell, D. Trends in mental health, non-suicidal self-harm and suicide attempts among students and non-students aged 16-24 in England, 2000-2014. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatrist. Epidemiol. 55(1), 125–128 (2020).
Sundhedsstyrelsen, Danskernes Sundhed – Den Nationale Sundhedsprofil 2017. 2018: Sundhedsstyrelsen.
Pew Research Center. Mobile Fact Sheet 2021. 2021; Available at: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/fact-sheet/mobile/.
Dissing, AS et al. Daytime and nighttime smartphone use A study of associations between multidimensional smartphone behaviors and sleep in 24,856 Danish adults. J.Sleep Res 30(6), e13356 (2021).
Thomée, S., Härenstam, A. & Hagberg, M. Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances and symptoms of depression in young adults–a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 1166 (2011).
Vahedi, Z. & Saiphoo, A. The association between smartphone use, stress and anxiety: a meta-analytic review. Stress. Health 34(3), 347-358 (2018).
Thomée, S. Cell phone use and mental health. A review of research that takes a psychological perspective on exposure. Int. J. About. Res. Public health. 15(12), 2692 (2018).
The United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals. Goal 3: Enable healthy lives for all and promote well-being for all at all ages. 2021; Available at: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/health/.
He, J.-W. et al. Effect of restricting cell phone use at bedtime on sleep, wakefulness, mood, and working memory: a randomized pilot trial. PLOS ONE 15(2), e0228756 (2020).
Cain, N. & Gradisar, M. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: a review. Sleep Med. 11(8), 735–742 (2010).
Zisapel, N. New insights into the role of melatonin in human sleep, circadian rhythms and their regulation. Br.J. Pharmacol. 175(16), 3190–3199 (2018).
Tang, NK & Harvey, AG Effects of cognitive arousal and physiological arousal on the perception of sleep. Sleep 27(1), 69-78 (2004).
Chang, A.-M. et al. Nighttime use of LED readers negatively affects sleep, circadian rhythm, and alertness the next morning. proc. Natl. Acad. Science. 112(4), 1232-1237 (2015).
Marshall, NS and Stranges, S. Sleep duration: risk factor or risk marker for poor health 35–49 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2010).
Lockley, SW, Principles of sleep-wake regulation. 10–21 (2018)
Walker, MP & van Der Helm, E. Night therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing. Psychol. Bull. 135(5), 731 (2009).
Harvey, L.A. et al. Sleep disorders as transdiagnosis: taking into account neurobiological mechanisms. Clin. Psychol. Round. 31(2), 225-235 (2011).
Riemann, D., Berger, M. & Voderholzer, U. Sleep and depression – results of psychobiological studies: an overview. Biol. Psychol. 57(1), 67-103 (2001).
Freemann, D. et al. The Mental Health Effects of Sleep Improvement (OASIS): A Randomized Controlled Trial with Mediation Analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry 4(10), 749–758 (2017).
Becker, N.B. et al. Sleep quality and stress: a review of the literature. In Advanced research in health, education and social sciences (eds Marius, M. et al.) 53–61 (Editora Universitária, Santiago, 2015).
Yang, L. et al. The effects of psychological stress on depression. Fluent. Neuropharmacol. 13(4), 494-504 (2015).
Saling, LL & Haire, M. Are you awake? Cell phone use after lights out. Calculation. Hmm. Behavior 64932–937 (2016).
Rod, NH et al. Nocturnal smartphone use: a new public health challenge? A new study design based on high-resolution smartphone data. PLOS ONE 13(10), e0204811 (2018).
Rozgonjuk, D. et al. The association between problematic smartphone use, severity of depression and anxiety symptoms, and objectively measured smartphone use over one week. Calculation. Hmm. Behavior 8710-17 (2018).
Elhai, JD et al. Depression and emotion regulation predict objective smartphone use measured over a week. Personality Individual. To differ. 13321–28 (2018).
Stopczynski, A. et al. Measure social networks at scale with high resolution. PLOS ONE 9e95978 (2014).
Dissing, AS et al. Smartphone interactions and mental well-being in young adults: a longitudinal study based on high-resolution objective smartphone data. Scan. J. Public health. 49(3), 325–332 (2020).
Watson, Newfoundland et al. Joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society on the recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: methodology and discussion. Sleep 38(8), 1161-1183 (2015).
Lasgaard, M. Reliability and validity of the Danish version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Personality Individual. To differ. 42(7), 1359-1366 (2007).
Bech, P. et al. The sensitivity and specificity of the Major Depression Inventory, using the current status review as an index of diagnostic validity. J. Affect. Mess. 66(2), 159-164 (2001).
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T. & Mermelstein, R. A global measure of perceived stress. J. Health Soc. Behavior 24(4), 385–396 (1983).
Eskildsen, A. et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish consensus version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale. Scan. J. Work Approx. Health 41(5), 486–490 (2015).
Diener, E. et al. The life satisfaction scale. J.Pers. Assess. 49(1), 71-75 (1985).
John, OP, Naumann, LP & Soto, CJ Paradigm shift towards the integrative taxonomy of the big five traits: history, measurement and conceptual issues. In Personality Handbook: Theory and Research (eds John, OP et al.) 114–158 (Guilford Press, 2008).
De-Sola Gutiérrez, J., Rodríguez de Fonseca, F. & Rubio, G. Cell phone addiction: a review. Before. Psych. 7175 (2016).
Lud, R. et al. Validity and reliability of the content of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire. J. Aging Health 26(1), 128-150 (2014).
Kawachi, I. & Berkman, LF Social connections and mental health. J. Urban health 78(3), 458–467 (2001).
Dissing, AS et al. Measuring social integration and the strength of connections with smartphone and survey data. PLOS ONE 13(8), e0200678 (2018).
Greenland, S. & Pearl, J. Causality diagrams. In Modern epidemiology 183–209 (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, UK, 2008).
Vernon, L., Modecki, KL & Barber, BL Mobile Phones in the Bedroom: Sleep Pattern Trajectories and Later Psychosocial Development in Adolescents. Child Dev. 89(1), 66–77 (2018).
Elhai, JD et al. Non-social characteristics of smartphone use are most linked to depression, anxiety, and problematic smartphone use. Calculation. Hmm. Behavior 6975–82 (2017).
Dissing, AS et al. Elevated Perceived Stress and Social Interaction Behavior in Young Adults A study based on objective measures of face-to-face and smartphone interactions. PLOS ONE 14(7), 0218429 (2019).
STATISTA. Share of social media users in Denmark from 2016 to 2020, by social media site. 2021; Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/861527/share-of-social-media-users-in-denmark-by-social-media-site/.